Prairie Tested Trees

The Western Nursery Growers Group has developed a recommended tree list that was based on the results of the WNGG tree trial that ran for eight years (2008-2016) and/or from WNGG member's personal experiences when growing these trees. The trees are classified into four categories: Recommended, Collector, Not Recommended and trees that Need More Information. A detailed description of each of these categories is provided below the chart in the Legend section.

The trees in the WNGG tree trial were tested at four main sites: Strathmore, AB (Alberta South), Edmonton, AB (Alberta North), Portage la Prairie, MB (Manitoba South) and Saskatoon, SK (Saskatchewan & Central Manitoba). All these trees were grown in a cultivated field, located at a commercial tree nursery and were maintained the same way the rest of the other non-trial trees were grown.

The chart below should be viewed as a guideline rather than a guaranteed fact of the performance of each tree growing in a specific region. There are so many factors effecting tree performance that no guarantee can be expected when using the WNGG recommended tree chart.

Botanical Name Common Name Alberta
South
Alberta
North
Manitoba
South
Saskatchewan &
Central Manitoba
Acer ginnala ‘Flame’ Flame Amur Maple R R R C
Acer ginnala ‘JefUM’ Royal Crown Amur Maple R R R R
Acer ginnala ‘Ruby Slippers’ Ruby Slippers Amur Maple

R
Acer grandidentatum 'Manzano' (seed source) Manzano Big Tooth Maple NR NR NR NR
Acer grandidentatum x saacharum 'Hipzam' Highland Park Big Tooth Maple NR NR NR NR
Acer miyabei ‘KW3AMI’ Rugged Ridge Maple NR NR NR NR
Acer miyabei 'Morton' State Street Maple NR NR NR NR
Acer negundo ‘Baron’ Baron Manitoba Maple R R R C
Acer negundo ‘Sensation’ Sensation Manitoba Maple C C C C
Acer platanoides ‘Crimson Sentry’ Crimson Sentry Norway Maple

C 11 NR
Acer platanoides ‘Columnarbroad’ Parkway Norway Maple NR NR NR NR
Acer platanoides ‘Crimson King’ Crimson King Norway Maple
C 11 C 11 NR
Acer platanoides ‘Deborah’ Deborah Norway Maple
C 11 C 11 NR
Acer platanoides ‘Helena’ Helena Maple Norway Maple NR C 11 C 11 NR
Acer platanoides ‘Pond’ Emerald Lustre Norway Maple
C 11 C 11 NR
Acer platanoides ‘Prairie Splendor’ Prairie Splendor Norway Maple
C 11 C 11 NR
Acer platanoides ‘Royal Red’ Royal Red Norway Maple
C 11
NR
Acer pseudoplatanus 'Tunpetti' Regal Petticoat Sycamore Maple NR NR NR NR
Acer pseudosieboldianum Korean Maple

C
Acer rubrum ‘Autumn Flame’ Autumn Flame Red Maple NR NR NR NR
Acer rubrum ‘Autumn Radiance’ Autumn Radiance Maple NR NR NR NR
Acer rubrum ‘Autumn Spire’ Autumn Spire Red Maple C NR NR NR
Acer rubrum ‘Bailcraig’ Scarlet Jewell Red Maple NR C 5 C 5 NR
Acer rubrum ‘JFS-KW78’ Armstrong Gold Red Maple NR NR NR NR
Acer rubrum ‘Karpick’Acer rubrum ‘ Karpick Red Maple NR NR NR NR
Acer rubrum ‘Magnificent Magenta’ Burgundy Belle Red Maple NR NR NR NR
Acer rubrum ‘Northwood’ Northwood Red Maple

C 5 C 5
Acer rubrum ‘Polara’ Ruby Frost Red Maple C 5
C 5 NR
Acer rubrum ‘Red Rocket’ Red Rocket Red Maple

C 5
Acer rubrum ‘Supszam’ Super Sonic Red Maple NR NR NR NR
Acer saccharinum ‘Silver Cloud’ Silver Cloud Silver Maple R C R C
Acer saccharinum ‘Weirii’ Skinner Weeping Silver Maple

C NR
Acer saccharum ‘Bailsta’ Fall Fiesta Sugar Maple NR NR C 5 NR
Acer saccharum ‘Green Mountain’ Green Mountain Sugar Maple NR NR NR NR
Acer saccharum ‘Jefcan’ Unity Sugar Maple NR C R C
Acer saccharum ‘Jeferno’ Inferno Sugar Maple NR R R R
Acer saccharum ‘Jefselk’ (seed source) Lord Selkirk Sugar Maple

R
Acer saccharum ‘JFS-Caddo2’ Flashfire Sugar Maple

C NR
Acer saccharum ‘JFS-KW8’ Autumn Fest Sugar Maple NR NR NR NR
Acer saccharum ‘Sisseton’ Northern Flare Sugar Maple C NR R NR
Acer tataricum ‘GarAnn’ Hot Wings Tatarian Maple R 1 R 1 R 1 R 1
Acer tataricum ‘JFS-KW’ Rugged Charm Tatarian Maple R 1 R 1 R 1 R 1
Acer tataricum ‘Patdell’ Pattern Perfect Tatarian Maple R 1 R 1 R 1 R 1
Acer truncatum x A. platnoides ‘JFS-KW202’ Crimson Sunset Maple NR NR NR NR
Acer x freemanii 'Celzam’ Celebration Maple

C
Acer x freemanii ‘Bailston’ First Editions Matador Maple NR NR NR NR
Acer x freemanii ‘DurPSN204’ PSN 204 Freeman Maple NR R R NR
Acer x freemanii ‘Sienna’ Sienna Glen Freeman Maple NR NR NR NR
Acer x freemanii 'Armstrong' Armstrong Maple NR NR NR NR
Acer x freemanii 'Jeffersred' Autumn Blaze Maple C C C NR
Acer x fremanii ‘Autumn Fantasy’ Autumn Fantasy Maple NR NR NR NR
Aesculus glabra Ohio Buckeye R R R R
Aesculus glabra ‘Sunset’ Sunset Ohio Buckeye



Aesculus hippocastanum Horsechestnut
C C
Aesculus x ‘Homestead’ Homestead Horsechestnut



Aesculus x arnoldiana ‘Autumn Splendor’ Autumn Splendor Buckeye R R R R
Aesculus x carnea ‘Fort McNair’ Pink Horsechestnut NR NR NR NR
Alnus x Spaethii Spaeth Alder NR NR NR NR
Alnus hirsuta ‘Harbin’ Prairie Horizon Manchurian Alder R R R R
Amelanchier alnifolia ‘Obelisk’ Standing Ovation Serviceberry R R R R
Amelanchier laevis ‘JFS-Arb’ Spring Flurry Serviceberry NR NR NR NR
Amelanchier laevis ‘Snowcloud’ Snowcloud Serviceberry NR NR NR NR
Amelanchier x grandiflora 'Autumn Brilliance' Autumn Brilliance Serviceberry NR NR NR NR
Amelanchier x grandiflora'Princess Diana' Princess Diana Apple Serviceberry NR NR NR NR
Betula nigra River Birch



Betula papriferia ‘Chickadee’ Chickadee Paper Birch R R R R
Betula papriferia ‘Renci’ Renaissance Reflection Birch R R NR
Betula papyrifera ‘Varen’ Prairie Dream Birch R R R R
Betula pendula ‘Dalecarlica’ Cutleaf Weeping Birch R R R R
Betula pendula ‘Trost’s Dwarf’ Trost’s Dwarf Laceleaf Birch
R R R
Betula platyphylla ‘Fargo’ Dakota Pinnacle Birch R R R R
Betula platyphylla ‘Jefpark' Parkland Pillar Birch R R R R
Betula platyphylla ‘VerDale’ Prairie Vision Asian White Birch R R R R
Betula x ‘Crimson Frost’ Crimson Frost Birch R R R C
Betula x ‘Royal Frost’ Royal Frost Birch R R R C
Caragana arborescens ‘Jebarb’ Green Spires Caragana R R R R
Caragana arborescens ‘Lobergii’ Fernleaf Caragana R R R R
Caragana arborescens ‘Sutherland’ Sutherland Caragana R R R R
Carpinus caroliniana American Beech NR NR NR NR
Carpinus caroliniana ‘JFS-KW6’ Native Flame Hornbeam NR NR NR NR
Carya cordiformis Bitternut Hickory NR C C NR
Catalpa ovata Chinese Catalpa NR NR C NR
Celtis occidentalis ‘Delta Strain’ Delta Strain Hackberry C C R C
Celtis occidentalis ‘JFS-KSUI’ Prairie Sentinel Hackberry C C C NR
Crataegus x mordenensis ‘Snowbird’ Snowbird Hawthorn R R R R
Crataegus x mordenensis ‘Toba’ Toba Hawthorn R 11 R 11 R 11 C 11
Elaeagnus angustifolia Russian Olive R R R R
Fraxinus americana ‘Jefwis' Nobility White Ash R R R R
Fraxinus americana ‘Autumn Blaze’ Autumn Blaze White Ash NR C NR NR
Fraxinus americana ‘DurGar’ Tuxedo White Ash C C C NR
Fraxinus americana ‘DurKar’ Calypso White Ash NR NR C NR
Fraxinus americana ‘Jefnor’ Northern Blaze White Ash R R R C
Fraxinus mandshurica ‘Mancana’ Mancana Manchurian Ash R 6 R 6 R R 6
Fraxinus nigra ‘Fallgold’ Fallgold Black Ash R 2,6 R 2,6 R 2 R 2,6
Fraxinus pennsylvanica ‘Durcd’ Trojan Green Ash R R R R
Fraxinus pennsylvanica ‘Patmore’ Patmore Green Ash R R R R
Fraxinus pennsylvanica ‘Rugby’ Prairie Spire Green Ash R R R R
Fraxinus pennsylvanica 'Heuver' Foothills Green Ash R R C R
Fraxinus x 'Northern Gem’ Northern Gem Hybrid Ash R 6 R 6 R R 6
Fraxinus x‘Northern Treasure’ Northern Treasure Hybrid Ash R 6 R 6 R R 6
Ginkgo biloba ‘Autumn Gold’ Autumn Gold Ginkgo NR NR NR NR
Ginkgo biloba ‘Saratoga’ Saratoga Ginkgo NR NR NR NR
Ginkgo biloba ‘The President’ Presidential Gold Ginkgo NR NR NR NR
Gleditsia tracanthos ‘Draves’ Streetkeeper Honeylocust NR NR NR NR
Gleditsia tracanthos var. inermis ‘Harve’ Northern Acclaim Honeylocust C C R C
Gymnocladus dioicus ‘Espresso-JFS’ Espresso Kentucky Coffee Tree NR NR NR NR
Gymnocladus dioicus ‘Stately Manor’ Stately Manor Kentucky Coffee Tree NR
NR NR
Juglans cinera Butternut C R R C
Juglans nigra Black Walnut C C R C
Larix laricina Native Larch R R R R
Larix siberica ‘DurCarl’ Oasis Siberian Larch R R R R
Maackia amurensis Amur Maackia C NR C NR
Maackia amurensis ‘Starburst’ Starburst Amur Maackia



Maackia amurensis ‘Summerfrost’ Summerfrost Amur Maackia R R R 5 R
Maackia amurensis ‘Summertime’ Summertime® Amur Maackia NR NR NR NR
Malus ‘Adirondack’ Adirondack Flowering Crab NR NR NR NR
Malus ‘Almey’ Almey Crabapple R R R R
Malus ‘Big River’ Big River Crabapple R R R R
Malus ‘Dolgo’ Dolgo Crabapple R R R R
Malus ‘Dreamweaver’ Dreamweaver Crab C C C C
Malus ‘DurLawrence’ Courageous Flowering Crab R R R R
Malus ‘DurLeo’ Gladiator Rosybloom Crab R R R R
Malus ‘Jefgreen’ Emerald Spire Crabapple R R R
Malus ‘Jeflite’ Starlite Flowering Crabapple R R R R
Malus ‘Jefmist’ Royal Mist Flowering Crab. R R R R
Malus ‘Jefspire’ Purple Spire Rosybloom Crabapple R R R
Malus ‘JFSKW5’ Royal Raindrops Flow. Crabapple

C
Malus ‘Kelsey’ Kelsey Crabapple R R R R
Malus ‘Makamik’ Makamik Crabapple R R R R
Malus ‘Pink Spires’ Pink Spires Rosybloom Crab. R 7,8 R 7,8 R 7,8 R 7,8
Malus ‘Prairie Fire’ Prairie Fire Rosybloom Crab. C C C
Malus ‘Red Baron’ Red Baron Flowering Crab.

C
Malus ‘Red Jade' Red Jade Rosybloom Crab. R R R R
Malus ‘Red Splendor’ Red Splendor Crabapple R R R R
Malus ‘Rosthern’ Rosthern Flowering Crab R 7 R 7 R 7 R 7
Malus ‘Rosy Glo’ Weeping Rosy Glo Weeping Crab. R R R R
Malus ‘Royal Beauty’ Royal Beauty Flowering Crab. R R R R
Malus ‘Royal Spectacular’ Royal Spectacular Flowering Crab. R R R R
Malus ‘Royal Splendour’ Royal Splendour Flowering Crab. R R R R
Malus ‘Royalty’ Royalty Crabapple R R R R
Malus ‘Rudolph’ Rudolph Crabapple R R R R
Malus ‘Selkirk’ Selkirk Flowering Crab. R R R R
Malus ‘Shaughnessy Cohen’ Shaughnessy Cohen Flowering Crab R R R R
Malus ‘Spring Snow’ Spring Snow Flowering Crab. R R R R
Malus ‘Thunder Bay’ Thunder Bay Rosybloom Crab. R R R R
Malus ‘Thunderchild' Thunderchild Rosybloom Crab. R 8 R 8 R 8 R 8
Ostrya virginianna Ironwood C C C C
Phellodendron amurense Cork Tree C C C
Phellodendron lavallei ‘Longenecker’ Eye Stopper Cork Tree NR C
NR
Phellodendron sachalinense ‘His Majesty’ His Majesty Amur Cork Tree NR C NR NR
Populus acuminata Lanceleaf Poplar R R R R
Populus angustifolia Narrow Leaf Poplar R R R R
Populus balsamifera Balsam Poplar R R R R
Populus deltoides ‘Jefcot’ Skyfest Poplar R R R R
Populus deltoides ‘Siouxland’ Siouxland Poplar

R NR
Populus grandidentata ‘Durman’ Sabre Large Tooth Aspen R 4 R 4 R 4 R 4
Populus sargentii Sargent Poplar R R R R
Populus tremula erecta Swedish Columnar Aspen R R NR 4 R
Populus tremuloides Trembling Aspen R R R R
Populus tremuloides ‘Advance’ Advance Upright Aspen R R NR 4 R
Populus tremuloides ‘Driefest’ Forest Silver Aspen R R NR 4 R
Populus tremuloides ‘Lakeshore Select’ Lakeshore Select Aspen R R NR 4 R
Populus tremuloides ‘NE arb’ Prairie Gold Aspen C C C C
Populus tremuloides ‘Pike Bay’ Pike Bay Aspen R R NR 10 R
Populus tremuloides ‘Prairie Skyrise’ Prairie Skyrise Trembling Aspen R R NR 4 R
Populus x ‘ACWS151’ Sundancer Poplar R R R R
Populus x ‘Assiniboine’ Assiniboine Poplar R R R R
Populus x ‘Byland Green’ Byland Green Poplar R R R R
Populus x ‘DN 2’ DN 2 Poplar NR NR R NR
Populus x ‘Katepwa’ Katepwa Poplar R R NR 10 C
Populus x ‘Northwest’ Northwest Poplar R R R R
Populus x ‘Green Giant’ Green Giant Poplar



Populus x ‘Okanese’ Okanese Poplar R R R R
Populus x ‘Prairie Sky’ Prairie Sky Poplar R R R R
Populus x ‘Tristis’ Tristis Poplar R R NR 7 R
Populus x canescens ‘Tower’ Tower Aspen R R NR 4 R
Prunus maackii ‘Jefdike’ Klondike Amur Cherry R R R R
Prunus maackii ‘Jefspur’ Goldspur Amur Cherry R R R R
Prunus maackii ‘Ming’ Ming Cherry R R R R
Prunus nigra ‘Princess Kay’ Princess Kay Plum R R R R
Prunus padus Mayday

NR 3 NR 3
Prunus padus ‘Advance’ Advance Mayday

NR 3 NR 3
Prunus padus ‘Merlot’ Merlot Mayday

NR 3 NR 3
Prunus padus ‘Sweetheart Mayday’ Sweetheart Mayday R C NR 3 NR 3
Prunus pensylvanica Pin Cherry R R R R
Prunus pensylvanica ‘Mary Liss’ Mary Liss Pincherry R R R R
Prunus virginiana ‘Arrowhead Schubert’ Arrowhead Schubert Cherry R R NR 3 NR 3
Prunus virginiana ‘Schubert’ Classic Schubert Cherry R R NR 3 NR 3
Prunus virginiana ‘Spur Schubert’ Spur Schubert Cherry R R NR 3 NR 3
Prunus virginianna ‘Bailey Select’ Bailey Select Schubert Cherry

NR 3 NR 3
Prunus virginianna ‘Midnight’ Midnight Cherry

NR 3 NR 3
Prunus x nigrella ‘Muckle’ Muckle Plum R R R R
Pyrus ussuriensis ‘Bailfrost’ Mountain Frost® Pear R R R R
Pyrus ussuriensis ‘Mordak’ Prairie Gem® Pear


R
Pyrus x ‘DurPSN303’ Navigator Pear R R R R
Pyrus x‘Jefgold’ Early Gold Pear NR R R
Quercus alba x robur ‘Crimschmidt’ Crimson Spire Oak C C C 5 NR
Quercus bicolor ‘Bonnie and Mike’ Beacon Oak

NR
Quercus bimundorum ‘Midwest’ Prairie Stature Oak C C C 5 NR
Quercus ellipidsoidalis ‘Bailskies’ Majestic Skies Northern Pin Oak



Quercus ellipidsoidalis ‘DurMarg’ Shooting Star Northern Pin Oak R R R R
Quercus macrocarpa Bur Oak R R R R
Quercus macrocarpa ‘Arrowhead’ Arrowhead Bur Oak R R R R
Quercus macrocarpa ‘Bydur’ Top Gun Bur Oak R R R R
Quercus macrocarpa ‘JKS-KW3’ Urban Pinnacle Bur Oak R 9 R 9 R 9 R 9
Quercus muehlenbergii Chinkapin Oak NR NR NR NR
Quercus palustris ‘Pingreen’ Green Pillar NR NR NR NR
Quercus robur x alba 'JFS-KW1QX' Streetspire Oak NR NR NR NR
Quercus rubra Northern Red Oak C C C NR
Quercus x jackiana ‘Jefmir’ Admiration Hybrid Oak R R R
Quercus x macdanielii ‘Clemons’ Heritage® Oak

C 5
Quercus x warei ’Long’ Regal Prince Oak C C C 5 NR
Quercus x warei 'Nadler’ Kindred Spirit Oak

C 5
Salix acutifolia ‘Acute Leaf’ Acute Leaf Willow R R R R
Salix alba ‘Golden Advance’ Golden Advance Willow R R R C
Salix alba‘Sericea’ Silky White Willow R R R R
Salix alba‘Vitellina’ Golden Willow R R R C
Salix babylonica ‘Lace’ Lace Weeping Willow C C C C
Salix pentandra Laurel Leaf Willow R R R R
Salix pentandra ‘Silver Lake’ Prairie Reflection Willow R R R R
Salix x ‘Prairie Cascade’ Prairie Cascade Willow R R R C
Sorbus americana American Mountain Ash R R R R
Sorbus americana ‘Dwarfcrown’ Red Cascade Mountain Ash

NR 11 NR 11
Sorbus aucuparia European Mountain Ash R R R R
Sorbus aucuparia ‘Black Hawk’ Black Hawk Mountain Ash R R R R
Sorbus aucuparia ‘Fastigata’ Pyramidal Mountain Ash R R R R
Sorbus aucuparia ‘Michred’ Cardinal Royal® Mountain Ash R 11 R 11 R 11 R 11
Sorbus aucuparia ‘Rossica’ Russian Mountain Ash R R R R
Sorbus decora Showy Mountain Ash R R R R
Sorbus hybrida Oak Leaf Mountain Ash C C C C
Syringa pekinensis ‘China Snow’ China Snow Peking Lilac NR
NR
Syringa pekinensis ‘Copper Curls’ Copper Curls Peking Lilac



Syringa pekinensis ‘DTR 124’ Summer Charm Peking Lilac NR R NR NR
Syringa pekinensis ‘Zhang Zhiming’ Beijing Gold Peking Lilac NR NR NR NR
Syringa reticulata Japanese Tree Lilac R R R R
Syringa reticulata ‘Bailnce’ Snowdance Japanese Tree Lilac R R R R
Syringa reticulata ‘Duriske’ Shogun Japanese Tree Lilac R R R R
Syringa reticulata ‘Boulevard’ Boulevard Japanese Tree Lilac R R R R
Syringa reticulata ‘Elliot’ Snowcap Tree Lilac R R R R
Syringa reticulata ‘Golden Eclipse’ Golden Eclipse Tree Lilac R R R R
Syringa reticulata ‘Ivory Silk’ Ivory Silk Japanese Tree Lilac R R R R
Syringa reticulata ‘Sigzam’ Signature Japanese Tree Lilac R R R R
Syringa reticulata ‘Willamette’ Ivory Pillar Tree Lilac R R R R
Tilia flavescens ‘Dropmore’ Dropmore Linden R R R R
Tilia americana American Linden R R R R
Tilia americana ‘Bailyard’ Frontyard® Linden C
R C
Tilia americana ‘Boulevard’ Boulevard Linden C
R C
Tilia americana ‘Continental Appeal’ Continental Appeal Amer. Linden



Tilia americana ‘DTR 123’ American Legend Amer. Linden


R
Tilia americana ‘Duros’ True North Linden R R R R
Tilia americana ‘Lakeshore select’ Lakeshore American Linden

R R
Tilia americana ‘Lincoln’ Lincoln American Linden

R 11
Tilia americana ‘McKSentry’ American Sentry Linden R R R R
Tilia americana ‘Redmond’ Redmond American Linden R R R C
Tilia cordata Tilia cordata Little Leaf Linden C C R R
Tilia cordata ‘Baileyi’ Shamrock Linden C C R R
Tilia cordata ‘ByHugh’ Lone Star Linden R
R R
Tilia cordata ‘Chancole’ Chancellor Littleleaf Linden



Tilia cordata ‘Corzam’ Corinthian Littleleaf Linden



Tilia cordata ‘Golden Cascade’ Golden Cascade Linden R R R R
Tilia cordata ‘Greenspire’ Greenspire Linden R
R R
Tilia cordata ‘Halka’ Summer Sprite Littleleaf Linden NR C 11 C 11 NR
Tilia cordata ‘Ronald’ Norlin Linden R
R R
Tilia mongolica ‘Durjake’ Windancer Linden C C R R
Tilia mongolica ‘Harvest Gold’ Harvest Gold Linden C C R R
Tilia x ‘Skinur’ Skinur Manchurian Linden R R R R
Tilia x flavescens ‘Glenleven’ Glenleven Linden R C R R
Ulmus americana American Elm R R R R
Ulmus americana ‘Brandon’ Brandon Ascending Elm R R R R
Ulmus americana ‘Lewis & Clark’ Prairie Expedition Elm

R NR
Ulmus americana ‘Patmore Select’ Patmore Elm R R R R
Ulmus davidiana ‘Discovery’ Discovery Elm

R C
Ulmus x ‘Cathedral’ Cathedral Elm

R NR
Ulmus x ‘Morton Glossy’ Triumph Elm

R C
Ulmus x ‘Morton Plainsman’ Vanguard Elm

R C
Ulmus x ‘Morton’ Accolade Elm

R NR

Legend for the WNGG Tree Trial summary chart.

Recommend (R on green background) – trees that performed best and sustained no more than 10% winter kill during the trial period. These trees must have a high to complete resistance to disease and insects, well adapted to prairie soils, display a dominate ornamental value and be commercially available.

Collector Trees (C on yellow background) – trees that sustained between 10 - 50% winter kill during the trial period. These trees must have a high to complete resistance to disease and insects, well adapted to prairie soils, display a dominate ornamental value and are commercially available.

Not Recommended (NR on red background) – trees that sustained more than 50% winter kill during the trial period and/or are very susceptible to insects and disease. These trees are not recommended to be planted in the prairie region.

Need More Information (Blank cell ) - trees that need to be retested or put in the trial for the first time.

1. Anthracnose is a fungal disease that infects the leaf veins and surrounding areas on leaves and seeds of shade trees. This disease does not cause death but looks 1. Anthracnose is a fungal disease that infects the leaf veins and surrounding areas on leaves and seeds of shade trees. This disease does not cause death but looks unsightly. More prevalent in years when the springtime is cool and moist.

2. Ash Flower Gall Mite stimulates a great proliferation of flower buds on male trees. This creates groups of deformed flower buds that remain on the tree after leaf 2. Ash Flower Gall Mite stimulates a great proliferation of flower buds on male trees. This creates groups of deformed flower buds that remain on the tree after leaf fall and for many years.

3. Black Knot is a fungal disease on cherry trees such as Schubert chokecherry and wild chokecherries. The first sign of the disease appears as a green swelling on 3. Black Knot is a fungal disease on cherry trees such as Schubert chokecherry and wild chokecherries. The first sign of the disease appears as a green swelling on the branch that eventually increases in size and matures as a dark elongated gall like structure. It appears in fast growing cultivars such as Bailey Select that are many times more susceptible than the slower cultivars such as Spur and the Classic Schubert cherries.

4. Bronze Leaf Disease (BLD) is a fungal disease that over many years will cause death to many aspen cultivars. Swedish Columnar (P. tremula erecta) and Tower 4. Bronze Leaf Disease (BLD) is a fungal disease that over many years will cause death to many aspen cultivars. Swedish Columnar (P. tremula erecta) and Tower aspen (P. x canescens 'Tower') are two cultivarsalong with its hybrids are very susceptible to BLD. The most tolerant aspens are the pure species of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), largetooth aspen (P. grandidentata) and silver aspen (P. alba). The first sign of BLD are bronzing of the green leaves in August and those bronzed leaves curl up and remain on the tree during the winter and the next season.

5. Cholorosis affects the performance of the tree in growth and vigour. The sign tha your plant is suffering from iron chlorosis is when the leaf turns yellow while the5. Cholorosis affects the performance of the tree in growth and vigour. The sign tha your plant is suffering from iron chlorosis is when the leaf turns yellow while the veins still retain the normal green colour. Iron chlorosis develops when the tree is unable to absorb enough iron even though there may be enough iron present in the soil. Application of iron chelates makes the iron more available to the roots.

6. Cottony Psyllid is an invasive insect that attacks black and Manchurian ash trees during the late spring to early summer months. The nymph stage of this insect 6. Cottony Psyllid is an invasive insect that attacks black and Manchurian ash trees during the late spring to early summer months. The nymph stage of this insect will suck the goodness of the leaves resulting in trees with curled up green leaves. The vigour of the tree is severely compromised and the tree will eventually die from repeated attacks each year and/or the attacks from a secondary killer, the ash borer.

7. Fireblight is a bacterial disease that will eventually kill the tree. The early signs of fireblight look like a branch has been torched by a flame and black leaves and
stem remains in a curled state.

8. Leaf Scab is a fungal disease that attacks trees in the apple, crabapple and pear family. Leaf scab appears as dark blemishes on the leaf and fruit in mid-spring. This disease will severely reduce the growth of the tree since many leaves and fruit drop before autumn. The infected fruit are not good to eat. Many new varieties of apples, crabapples and pears are highly tolerant or are totally resistant to leaf scab.

9. Slow Annual Growth.

10. Stem Canker is a fungal disease that is first detected when the bark on poplars turn yellow, brown or black. The wood around the canker then begins to deteriorate and the stem is either girdled or weakened and the tree eventually breaks.

11. Sunscald and Frost Cracking are caused when the late winter sun warms up the south or west side of the trunk and the tree's trunk inner and outer wood expand at different rates. When the severe cold winterwinter temperatures returns there is too much difference in expansion rates and a major stress occurs resulting in cracks and splits in the bark.